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Frontal lobe injury

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Gambling definition puncture symptoms

Postby Taujind В» 12.01.2020

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The frontal lobe of the human brain is both relatively large in mass and less restricted in movement than the posterior portion of the brain. Because of its location in the anterior part of the head, the frontal lobe is arguably more susceptible to injuries. Memory impairment is another common effect associated with frontal lobe injuries, but this effect is less documented and may or may not be the result of flawed testing.

Patients with damaged frontal lobes often complain of minimal to substantial memory loss. Because of this, frontal lobe injuries have long been associated with memory problems, despite little evidence actually showing this relation to be true. In fact, when patients with such injuries are tested using standard memory tests, they often score within normal.

Close relatives of these same patients, however, may describe substantial memory problems. The disparity occurs because it is not the memory system itself that is affected, but the functions of the frontal lobe that facilitate working memory. The important part of working memory is secondary memory , in which an individual retrieves information.

Those with high working memory are able to perform this retrieval even when distracted by another task. Patients with damaged frontal lobes show lower working memory and, therefore, a lessened ability to retrieve information from their secondary memory.

An increase in impulsivity , risk taking or both is often seen in individuals following frontal lobe damage. The two related terms differ in that impulsivity is a response disinhibition , while risk taking is related to the reward-based aspects of decision-making.

Contrarily, risk takers will look at the consequences but not weigh them; they will jump at the opportunity of a reward even if the likelihood of receiving that reward is slim.

The increase of risk taking amongst damaged frontal lobe patients can be directly observed during gambling, and gambling tasks have been developed to measure such behavior. Before more advanced technology came about, scientists tested individual behavior using more low-tech means. As technology progressed, so did the tests scientists administer to evaluate a person's cognitive function.

This test has an inverse relationship between the probability of obtaining a reward and the value of the reward itself; that is to say, a low probability but a high reward or a high probability but a low reward. In one of the ways to carry this out, a set of cards will be presented face down to the individual being tested; one of the cards would be the winning card, and all the others, losers.

Cards will then be continuously removed from the pile and added back in randomly, during which time the winning card could be anywhere. Subjects being tested are told they can stop the process at any time and have the cards flipped over; if the winning card is present within the pile they win points.

The catch, however, is that more points are awarded when less cards are present; but when less cards are present, the probability of the winning card being within the pile is less.

Risk takers are those that go for the higher reward more points , even though they are less likely to actually receive that reward. They choose a higher, less likely award, over a lower, more probable reward.

Subjects that have experienced a frontal lobe injury show just such behavior when tested. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test WCST can be used in conjunction with other tests to speculate to possible dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex , the front-most area of the frontal lobe, that plays an important role in executive functioning. However, since the age of modern medicine and brain imaging, the WCST has been proven to be inaccurate and inconclusive in diagnosing frontal lobe damage.

The WCST test is supposed to specifically measure an individual's competence in abstract reasoning, and the ability to change problem-solving strategies when needed.

A saccade is a fast movement of the eyes in a certain direction. In the most simplistic form, there are two types of saccade tests administered in which the only requirement is movement of the eye: the prosaccade and the antisaccade. This task calls for inhibition of a prepotent response as well as planning and executing an eye movement that contradicts instinct. Those with frontal lobe injuries show lower working memory, and therefore typically do not test well in the antisaccade test.

While impulsivity and risk-taking behavior are both commonly observed following a frontal lobe injury, such traits are hard to evaluate and quantify without some degree of subjectivity. Because of this, caution should be taken in how to interpret different results. It is also important to remember that a single test, such as the WCST, cannot be used to measure the effects of a frontal lobe injury, or the aspects of cognitive function it may affect, such as working memory; variety of tests must be used.

A subject may be good at one task but show dysfunction in executive function overall. Similarly, test results can be made misleading after testing the same individual over a long period of time.

The subject may get better at a task, but not because of an improvement in executive cognitive function. Patients with damaged frontal lobes often complain of minimal to substantial memory loss, even though when such patients are tested using standard memory tests, they often score within normal.

The disparity could be the result of the limits of these standardized tests. Little is understood about frontal lobe functions facilitating memory, but what is clear is that more in-depth research of brain injury patients is needed. Because most research compares those with brain injuries whether frontal lobe or not and those without, the scientific community is unsure whether certain memory impairment is specific to frontal lobe injuries, or just traumatic brain injuries in general.

There are many factors to consider when examining the effects of a traumatic brain injury, such as the nature of the injury as well as its cause; but the severity of the injury seems to be most important in affecting memory impairment specific to frontal lobe damage. Those patients suffering a mild traumatic brain injury with frontal lobe damage seem to be only slightly affected, if affected at all. Frontal lobe injuries have been shown to cause decreased ability in combining events that are temporally separated separated by time , as well as recalling information in its correct context.

However, standardized testing may mask or exaggerate a possible impairment because the patients are strictly regulated, as are their discretionary behaviors. Many times, these are behaviors thought to be directly related to disorders of the frontal lobe, when in fact, these patients are suffering from a different problem entirely, such as paying attention, anxiety, sleep disorder, etc. The main conclusion that can be agreed upon is that tests should continuously be scrutinized; as society progresses, better tests should be designed.

Without the proper tests to assess traumatic brain injury patients with frontal lobe damage in particular, we may be misrepresenting the functions of the frontal lobe, specifically the role it plays in memory. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of brain injury. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society. Assessment of psychosocial dysfunction resulting from head trauma.

In: Lezak MD, editor. Assessment of the behavioral consequences of head trauma. New York NY : A. Liss; — Hassin, K.

Trope Eds. Self-control in society, mind, and brain; Retrieved from "Archived copy" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Categories : Neurotrauma Frontal lobe. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: archived copy as title Articles with short description All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September Namespaces Article Talk.

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Postby Akinokasa В» 12.01.2020

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Postby Gronris В» 12.01.2020

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Postby Salkree В» 12.01.2020

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Postby Kejinn В» 12.01.2020

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Re: gambling definition puncture symptoms

Postby Vudotilar В» 12.01.2020

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Postby Douzahn В» 12.01.2020

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Postby Nejind В» 12.01.2020

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