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Gambling addiction livelihood institute

Postby Yoktilar В» 09.06.2019

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Gambling is a cross-cultural and global activity which typically involves the wagering of money or an item of monetary value on an outcome that is governed by chance. Although gambling is positioned as a legitimate recreational and leisure activity within sub-Saharan Africa SSA , there is widespread recognition among healthcare professionals and policy-makers that gambling has the capacity to become dysfunctional in a minority.

Emerging knowledge suggests that problem gambling is rapidly evolving in to a public health concern in SSA, especially among youth. This article focuses on problem gambling among young people in SSA with an emphasis on three key themes: 1 gambling behavior and patterns in SSA; 2 public health and socioeconomic implications of gambling in SSA; and 3 public health policies and interventions for addressing this issue.

We believe that collaborative efforts between government, prevention specialists, legislators, researchers, treatment providers, and other stake holders can influence the uptake of research findings necessary to implement social policies and design effective public health intervention options to combat problem gambling and its associated implications among young people in SSA. Over the recent years, many parts of the developing world have experienced unprecedented increases in gambling availability, participation, and expenditure.

South Africa currently holds the most casinos on the continent with 38 legally operating casinos 3. Gambling addiction has been defined as a biopsychosocial disorder characterized by a persistent and recurrent maladaptive pattern of gambling behavior 4.

This disorder is associated with adverse psychological, physical, economic, social, and legal outcomes 5 , 6. Indeed, the clinical literature points toward high rates of comorbidities between GD and substance-related disorders, their overlapping neural circuitry 4 , 10 , 11 , shared clinical presentation i.

As opposed to the burgeoning literature exploring gambling and GD in Western nations 19 , 20 , there is a paucity of research on gambling behavior e. This information gap is important in terms of gaining a better understanding and knowledge of these variables and will assist in designing effective preventive and treatment programs. In this context, the present article aims to provide a fresh perspective on the emerging issue of problem gambling among young people in SSA. With the rapid growth of the gambling industry in many parts of SSA, such as Nigeria, South Africa, and Kenya, which at times is coupled with weak regulatory environments 1 , young people are increasingly exposed to gambling practices.

Due to their high propensity for risk taking 21 , and not being aware of the potential undesirable effects of such behaviors e. Importantly, some of these studies point to a significant burden of gambling problems among young people in SSA 28 , 39 — Gambling in SSA takes on various forms, including commercially legalized gambling options such as casinos, pool games, bingo, sports betting, scratch cards and lotteries.

Studies indicate a high cultural variation in local gambling options, accessibility, and participation 28 , 33 , 35 , This can make gambling readily accessible to those without adequate financial resources, such as minors and the urban poor.

It follows that different gambling practices have been reported across socioeconomic strata and also between men and women boys and girls. In considering these points, several models have been proposed to explain the acquisition of gambling behaviors among adolescents and young people such as social learning theory 45 with evidence suggesting that adolescents may engage in more risky behavior in the presence of peers i. Besides the influence of peers and aggressive marketing efforts from the gambling sector 42 , GD and associated problems sometimes trace their roots in a family setting where young people are introduced to gambling at a young age Indeed, in various settings, young people perceive gambling as an acceptable activity to the extent that some consider it an alternative source of livelihood toward which they would rather devote substantial time and energies 27 , The gambling industry has established itself as a prominent social and economic force with significant impact on job creation and revenue generation 1 , It follows that some young people have been reported to hold positive attitudes toward rewards from gambling, such as entertainment, relaxation, masculinity, and financial benefits 36 , 42 , Whether such rewards actually materialize remains questionable.

Gambling has, however, been shown to have far-reaching negative implications at individual, family, community, and societal level; most of which remain insufficiently explored within the SSA setting. At the individual level, compulsive gambling problems affect a measurable proportion of young gamblers 28 and may manifest in both psychiatric e. Surprisingly, very few gamblers would admit that gambling is an addictive habit Unfortunately, a diagnosis of GD is often missed in clinical or population settings implying that those in need of medical and social care often fail to access it when most needed.

Financial hardship is another cross-cutting concern. For instance, in South Africa, gamblers recounted experiences of landing themselves in debt, family financial hardships, and high levels of poverty in their communities Woefully, it is mainly the poorest strata of these societies who spend most of their income on gambling 34 , 47 , as such a vicious cycle of poverty ensues.

Other notable impacts of gambling include loss of productive school or work hours, truancy, and domestic and community violence as well as loss of family assets 42 , Treatment of GD remains a significant challenge with the most effective treatments, including a varied combination of psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, financial education, and self-help interventions. Unfortunately, it appears that the pervasive stigma surrounding GD may prevent people from seeking treatment.

These factors make it difficult to assess the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for GD. It is, however, noteworthy that medication appears to work more effectively when used in conjunction with psychological treatment.

In this respect, the use of cost-effective psychological interventions, such as self-directed interventions e. Similarly, addressing problems associated with the gambling industry, such as addiction and underage gambling, have revealed promising results for tackling this issue Other cost-effective methods to tackle GD include responsible gambling programs and educational initiatives Responsible gambling programs provide information and education about the risks of gambling and counseling support to gamblers who are experiencing problems with gambling.

Because adolescents may be especially vulnerable to the harmful effects of gambling they represent a population of interest in terms of these programs and initiatives As the gambling industry in SSA continues to flourish, the implementation of regulations and formal laws that govern this expansion and assess the impact of gambling upon society will represent key policy initiatives.

Policies that enforce that gambling establishments are not situated close to one another i. As another public policy initiative, self-exclusion programs—as seen in South Africa—represent a legislated process allowing for a person to exclude themselves from gambling activities Furthermore, laws preventing gambling centers from setting up shop close to schools and universities in addition to enforcing a limitation of opening hours and tighter restrictions on entry and the advertising of gambling establishments will also be of significance.

However, it is necessary to emphasize that such initiatives will only prove effective if there is widespread adherence and enforcement of these policies and statutes.

With this in mind, the potential lack of awareness among retailers and people working in gambling establishments regarding penalties and the respective laws, and among the general public on the serious consequences of GD may in part account as to why underage youth can access gambling opportunities in spite of legal age restrictions In order to tackle this problem, the development of policies and programs offering information to gambling establishments and retailers regarding the importance of enforcing legal age and legal liabilities, all of which would serve as barriers to underage gambling would be necessary.

The introduction of programs with a focus on promoting responsible gambling and availing counseling services e. Supportive environments created through solid political measures are effective in changing behavioral patterns 38 , As noted previously, the age of exposure and onset of gambling behavior has been strongly associated with GD, with a younger age of exposure or initiation being linked to a greater risk of developing a gambling-related problem Hence, it follows that increasing the age of first exposure to gambling participation by limiting the availability and accessibility to gambling venues, activities, and products, and raising the minimum legal age for gambling are all key regulatory policy development issues.

However, in order for any such education program to prove effective, it is vital that policies are adopted that can cultivate environments supportive of behavior change. Other policy initiatives that should be taken into consideration include those that contribute to the prevention of GD through funding commitments to the implementation and institutionalization of prevention practices Notable examples of programmatic policies include training of health services professionals, community development and education, development of resources for treatment and prevention, and industry education programs targeting venue operators and retailers, all of which should focus on establishing supportive environments as well as enhancing the skills of individuals With the expansion of the gambling industry in SSA, opportunities to engage in gambling are numerous.

Given the high level of youth unemployment and the genuinely low wages in SSA 54 , 55 , an increasing number of youth find themselves participating in gambling-related activities without being aware of the potential undesirable effects that may culminate from gambling addiction. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of prevention programs or specific treatment facilities for youth gambling in SSA Therefore, a specific set of actions should be taken.

First, rigorous enforcement of laws prohibiting underage gambling should be enacted 42 , Second, strategies to increase education and public awareness regarding the issue of problem gambling are of core necessity Third, more resources and funding to help increase the currently scarce mental health and addiction programs related to problem gambling in SSA are needed Fourth, collaborative efforts between governments, private, and civil society sectors as well as prevention specialists, legislators, researchers, and treatment providers will help contribute to the development of social policies and effective public health intervention options for treatment of youth and adults alike with problem gambling within the region.

With this in mind, future studies will need to investigate whether there are differences in gambling and problem gambling behaviors, as well as gambling correlates, among people from different SSA countries.

This is important given the large cultural diversity that exists in SSA and the distinct gambling culture in each country. Both authors substantially contributed to the conception and drafting of this manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The reviewer SR and the handling Editor declared their shared affiliation.

We are thankful to Joseph Ssali Ssentongo and Dr. Stephan Arni, Ph. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Public Health v. Front Public Health. Published online Feb 9. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Reviewed by: Georgios D. Received Nov 9; Accepted Jan The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Abstract Gambling is a cross-cultural and global activity which typically involves the wagering of money or an item of monetary value on an outcome that is governed by chance.

Keywords: addiction, gambling, intervention, public health, youth. Introduction Over the recent years, many parts of the developing world have experienced unprecedented increases in gambling availability, participation, and expenditure. Gambling among Young People in SSA With the rapid growth of the gambling industry in many parts of SSA, such as Nigeria, South Africa, and Kenya, which at times is coupled with weak regulatory environments 1 , young people are increasingly exposed to gambling practices.

Open in a separate window. Implications of Gambling The gambling industry has established itself as a prominent social and economic force with significant impact on job creation and revenue generation 1 , Interventions and Social Policy for Gambling among Young People in SSA Treatment of GD remains a significant challenge with the most effective treatments, including a varied combination of psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, financial education, and self-help interventions.

Conclusion and Future Directives With the expansion of the gambling industry in SSA, opportunities to engage in gambling are numerous. Author Contributions Both authors substantially contributed to the conception and drafting of this manuscript. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Footnotes Funding. References 1. Betting on Africa. Sunninghill, South Africa: Denver: GeoPoll; National Gambling Board South Africa. Pathological choice: the neuroscience of gambling and gambling addiction.

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Re: gambling addiction livelihood institute

Postby Takus В» 09.06.2019

Langa M. The vulnerable faces of pathological gambling. For example, through a spot check of 48 betting outlets undertaken in Aprilonly 27 per cent of see more had valid licenses displayed, 29 per cent had obsolete livelihood while 44 per cent did not have any license displayed, pointing to the weak monitoring capacities of the regulatory body. With the rapid growth of the gambling industry in many parts of SSA, such as Nigeria, Gambling Africa, and Kenya, which at times is coupled with weak regulatory environments 1young people are increasingly exposed http://hotcash.site/games-for/top-games-apron-for-women-1.php gambling practices. Institute is thus unable to effectively exercise its mandate, thereby inhibiting its ability gambking comprehensively regulate addiction industry.

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Re: gambling addiction livelihood institute

Postby Brasho В» 09.06.2019

In considering these points, several models have been proposed to explain the acquisition of gambling behaviors among adolescents and young people such as social learning theory go here with evidence suggesting that adolescents may engage in more risky behavior in the presence institute peers i. More steps should be taken to safeguard minors from engaging adddiction gambling livelihood, and this necessitates NLB addiction institute stricter monitoring controls. Pathological gambling treatment-review.

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